Designing a gear pairs according to kinematic parameters

We continue to share with you international experience and developments in the field of highly specialized engineering calculations. One of the key data for designing gear systems is kinematic data. Often, the goal of designing a gearbox is to obtain lower rotational speeds and more torque on the output mechanism than on the motor.

Based on the above initial data, it is necessary to calculate the gear ratio and calculate the optimal number of steps with efficiently distributed gear ratios for each of them.

The task is complicated by the need to take into account space limitations (case dimensions) and the rational cost of the gearbox manufacturing. Therefore, it is important to determine the optimal center distances for each stage and facewidths. In addition, the efficiency and torque loss of the gearbox also depend on the selected gear materials and its quality. Choosing the right heat treatment and taking into account the roughness of the mating surfaces is also necessary in the design process and calculations.


For example, hardened gears tend to provide more torque than nitrided gears, but the heat treatment process can cause wheel body warpage that deforms the wheel. To compensate for this phenomenon, a gear teeth flank modification is used – the grinding operation, removing a few microns of the surface layer.

Considering all these factors, the approximate determination of the dimensions of the gear becomes a difficult task. However, the definition of these basic values is extremely important. Because it has a key influence on the size, power, cost, and material consumption of the designed gearbox.

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